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(VI) The Sophistic Movement and the Failure of Greek Liberation
i) The English self-identification w. the Greeks -- Victorian hostility to the "vulgar" Sophists, compared to journalists, extension lecturers and Benthamites. After Great War, more sympathy w. their hostility to nomos, more willing to separate "justice" from "piety" (p.92-3).

ii) Progress through nomos, Protagorean school (Herodotus included by Dodds) -- That "there are better and worse laws, but the laws of any state are valid for that state so long as the people believe in them. It is the business of a wise man to get the laws improved by peaceful propaganda." (Dodds) (p.99).
-- Dike and aidos are seen as necessary for civilization. (p.99)

iii) Nomos as tyrranos, Hippias' school (Callicles included) -- Only universal and thus divinely inspired laws are binding, Hippias according to Xenophon (Mem. 4, 4.14) (p.100). Nomos are a fetter on the strong (Callicles), compared to social-Darwinists and Nietzsche (p.104-5).

iv) The "Physis-men", those who advocate living according to nature -- On the one hand, Hippias, Callicles and the immoralists, on the other hand, the Stoics (according to Dodds) (p.104-5)

(VIII) Plato and the Irrational
i) Investigating Plato as a rationalist in three senses:
1) As a rationalist opposed to an empiricist, who places reason, not the senses, as the archai of science (p.107).
2) As a believer that holds the life of man and the universe as being governed-by or manifestations-of a rational plan (p.107).
3) As believing in the principle of regarding reason as the chief or only guide in matters of religion (p.108). This association Dodds disputes.

ii) Re. "oudeis hekoon hamartanei", and the association of virtue w. knowledge
1) "Not perversely invented by Plato or even Socrates", common to the atmosphere of the 5th century and the great Sophists (p.108)
2) Dodds takes Xenophon's "Mem." and Plato's "Protagoras", w. its "genial worldliness and simple-minded utilitarianism to be evidence of that atmosphere (p.109)
3) Plato, though, adapts the calculative, technical, hedonistic reason of the sophistai, in the "Phaedo" and "Republic", remakes phronesis into the vision of the eternal Forms, rather that the future (p.109).
4) Plato realizes by his "late period" that philosophic vision is the rarest of gifts, and that "intelligent hedonism" is the best option for the majority of mankind (p.110).
5) Falls back to the rule of law as a second-best to the philosopher-king.

iii) The irrational element of the soul and the limits of progress
1) Stasis in both "The Republic" and "The Sophist" [229d] (p.112-3)
2) That man will attain unity only in death in "The Epinomis" [992b]
3) List of disorders in "Timaeus" [86b] as originating in the body; bad psychoanalysis of Plato's motives in writing the "pessimistic" "Laws" (p.114).
4) In "Timaeus", the Errant Cause, planomene aitia, aka "necessity" appears as a 'true cause', the ouranos is said to be full of bad as well as good things in Laws X, ans disorderly movement is described as a fundamental feature of kosmos and anthropos (p.116).

iv) Plato disassociates himself from such kinds of "irrational faith" as...
1) Magic and necromancy in "Republic" [364b-e], "Laws" [905d-7d, 909d-10e, 909b, 933a-e].
2) Enthousiasmos; rates mantics and poets below athletes and businessmen in "Phaedrus" [248d].
3) The traditional gods, in "Timaeus" [40d-e], "Phaedrus" [246c], "Epinomis" [984d], "Euthyphro" [6a-c], "Republic" [377d].

(IX) The Religion of the Ordinary Man in Classical Greece
i) No philia between gods and men -- Aristotle "NE" [1159a4], Magna Moralia [1208b30] (p.140).
ii) Inner meaning, outer expressions; the former are highly variable, the latter (rituals) may persist for millenia (p.141). Examples (p.144, 146-7, 151).
iii) No professional priesthood, positions filled by election, by lot, by purchase, or were occasionally hereditary; often only part-time and tenable for only a year (p.142).
iv) No scripture; Pindar could safely refer to "Homer's lies", Nem. 7.23; even Orphic poems not canon (p.142).
v) No clear line between religious and profane literature (p.143).
vi) Homer deliberately ignored the ritualistic, magical or religious ideas of his times (p.143).
vii) Minoans and Myceneans built no temples, only palace shrines (p.144-5).
viii) Later temples zand shrines built on sites identified as holy; ground not sanctified by the act of building, as in Christianity (p.145)
ix) Deep connection of rites w. growth, harvest, planting cycle, ala Thesmophoria (p.146-7)
x) Ritual magic (technology) develops into a religious act of supplication (p.148-9).
xi) Feeding the restful dead (Dodds compares to a girl feeding her doll) vs. mutilating the angry dead vs. the public offering given to Heroes (p.152-3).
xii) Unofficial religions dedicated to nymphs, local hero-shrines, daemons, etcetera might be more popular than worship of the High Gods in most cases. A local would be more likely to cry-out to Heracles than to Zeus (p.153-5).
xiii) The development of the religion of Zeus to the sphere of intellectuals (p.155)

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