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The fundamental constituents of matter—electrons, quarks, and their relatives—are known as fermions; the particles associated with fundamental forces are bosons. (The names are in honor of Italian physicist Enrico Fermi and Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose.) The Standard Model of particle physics explains the relationship between these particles and the symmetries that govern their behavior. In particular, the Higgs boson is the result of an imperfect symmetry inherent in the weak force.

Space-time itself also possesses certain symmetries, which are described in the theory of relativity. Additionally, Noether's theorem (discovered by German mathematician Emmy Noether) states that a symmetry implies a conservation law. Moving a physical system—a decaying atomic nucleus, for example—an arbitrary distance shouldn't affect the decay behavior. That invariance is known as translational symmetry, and Noether's theorem associates it with the conservation of momentum.

Combining the rules of particle physics and this translational symmetry (along with some other aspects of relativity) yields supersymmetry, often abbreviated as SUSY. The side effect of this symmetry: every boson should have a fermion partner and vice versa.

Except they don't. There are more fermions than bosons in the Standard Model, and we don't see these partners in ordinary experiments. So, if it exists, SUSY must be a broken symmetry of nature...

A sort of particle-free supersymmetry found in exotic materials | Ars Technica

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( 2 comments — Leave a comment )
crookedfingers
Apr. 7th, 2014 04:37 pm (UTC)
birth
Happy Birthday!
ccord
Apr. 8th, 2014 12:53 am (UTC)
Re: birth
Thank-you most kindly!
( 2 comments — Leave a comment )

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