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Most of the emigrants decided to return, if at all, during the first years of the newly-founded Federal Republic. Very few of them received appointments. Between 1949 and 1953, the philosophers Theodor W. Adorno, Max Horkheimer, Helmut Kuhn, Michael Landmann, Karl Löwith, and Helmuth Plessner returned from exile to Frankfurt, Erlangen or Munich, Berlin, Heidelberg, and Göttingen. Among them, above all Karl Löwith and Helmuth Plessner exercised an influence that extended beyond their immediate workplace. Löwith’s critique of ideas in the philosophy of history that were inspired by the history of salvation may also have confirmed some of the war veterans among the students in rejecting the ideas of 1789; but reading Weltgeschichte und Heilsgeschehen [Meaning in History] aroused in all students more than anything else a salutary distrust of the use of background assumptions of the philosophy of history as a substitute for metaphysics. His other major work, From Hegel to Nietzsche, still reflects the younger Löwith’s interests in the individual in the role of a fellow human being. It made such an impression on me that I subsequently added an introductory chapter on the Young Hegelians to my dissertation after I had completed the main part...
Jürgen Habermas Recalls Philosophers of Jewish Background as Returnees to West Germany – Tablet Magazine

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