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"The Human Condition, ch.4" by Hannah Arendt

Quotes --
i) "...in a strictly utilitarian world, all ends are bound to be of short duration and to be transformed into means for some other end." (p.154)
ii) The end (the experience of instrumentality) literally justifies the means employed by homo faber (violence against nature). (p.153)
iii) "The perplexity... of all consistent utilitarianism... can be diagnosed theoretically as an innate capacity to understand the distinction between utility and meaningfulness... "in order to" and "for the sake of". (p.154)
iv) "It is 'for the sake of' usefulness in general that homo faber judges and does everything in terms of 'in order to'. The ideal of usefulness itself, like the ideals of other societies, can no longer be conceived as something needed in order to have something else; it simply defies questioning about its own use." (p.154)
vi) "Obviously, there is no answer to the question which Lessing put to the utilitarian philosophers of his time 'And what is the use of use?'". (p.154)
vii) "The 'in order to' has become the content of the 'for the sake of'; in other words utility established as meaning generates meaninglessness." (p.154)
viii) "The only way out of the dilemma of meaninglessness in all strictly utilitarian philosophy is to turn away from the objective world of use things and fall back upon the subjectivity of use itself." (i.e. man becomes the end) (p.155)
ix) "Yet the tragedy is that in the moment that homo faber seems to have found fulfillment in terms of his own activity, he begins to degrade the world of things... if man the use use the highest end, 'the measure of all things', then not only nature... but the 'valuable' things themselves have become mere means, losing their own intrinsic 'value'." (p.155)
x) "[Homo fabers'] perplexity lies in the fact that while only fabrication... is capable of building a world, this same world becomes as worthless as the employed material, a mere means to further ends, if the standards which governed its coming into being are permitted to rule after its establishment." (p.156)

On Protagoras -- "Man is the measure of all use-things..." (p.157)
On Kant -- Confusion of utility and meaningfulness in language. (p.154)
On the humiliation of great artists by their work. (p.210)

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